Lucena (pop. c. 42,000) is a town in southern Spain, in the province of Cordoba, in Andalucia. It is located just 60 km southeast of Cordoba City and just 85km North of Malaga. It is the second major city in the province after the provincial capital .
Lucena is situated on the Lucena River, on an important crossroads at the very centre of Andalucia. Over 90 percent of the population lives to the northeast of the city district (término municipal).
In early times Lucena was inhabited almost exclusively by Jews who had arrived together with its founders; hence it was called "Jews' City", a nickname also applied to Granada and Tarragona. The Jews of Lucena, who carried on extensive trade and industries, were, according to the 11th century Moslem geographer, Mohamed al-Edrisi, richer than those of any other city. They enjoyed the same freedom as their coreligionists in the large Muslim cities. Their rabbi, who was elected by the entire community, was granted special privileges and acted as judge in the civil and criminal cases arising in the community. The Jews lived peaceably until the Almoravides came into power.